Bronnen voor Pycnogenol bij diabetes en retinopathie

Hieronder een overzicht van de bronnen voor Pycnogenol bij diabetes en retinopathie.

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1. Rohdewald P. Pycnogenol. In: Rice-Evans CA, Packer L. Flavonoids in Health and Disease. New York, NY, VS: Marcel Dekker; 1998:405-419.
2. Masquelier J , inventor; Societe Civile de Recherche Pharmaceutique et Therapeutique, assignee. Hydroxyflavin 3,4-diols, a method of producing them and medicament based thereon. US patent 3,436,407. April 1, 1969.
3. Suzuki N , Kohama T , inventors; Medicinal Tradepia Co. Ltd., Horphag Research Limited, assignees. Medicinal composition for treating dysmenorrhea and endometriosis industrial use. US patent 6,372,266. April 16, 2002.
4. Grimm T , Skrabala R , Chovanova Z , et al. Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2006;6:4.
5. Williamson G , Manach C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:243S-255S.


6. Masquelier J , inventor; Societe Civile d’Investigations Pharmacologiques d’Aquitaine, Horphag Overseas Ltd, assignees. Plant extract with a proanthocyanidins content as therapeutic agent having radical scavenger effect and use thereof. US patent 4,698,360. October 6, 1987.
7. Grimm T , Schafer A , Hogger P. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol). Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36:811-822.
8. Moini H , Guo Q , Packer L. Enzyme inhibition and protein-binding action of the procyanidin-rich french maritime pine bark extract, pycnogenol: effect on xanthine oxidase. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:5630-5639.
9. Elstner EF , Kleber E. Radical scavenger properties of leucocyanidine. Presented at: 3rd International Symposium on Flavonoids in Biology & Medicine; November 13-17, 1989; Singapore.
10. Guo Q , Zhao B , Packer L. Electron spin resonance study of free radicals formed from a procyanidin-rich pine ( Pinus maritima ) bark extract, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;27:1308-1312.


11. Janisch K , Hippeli S , Dornisch K , Kern S , Elstner EF. Determination of the antioxidative potential of human plasma after supplementation with pycnogenol and whey. Food Res Int. 2002;35:257-266.
12. Packer L , Rimbach G , Virgili F. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;27:704-724.
13. Wei ZH , Peng QL , Lau BH. Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defenses. Redox Rep. 1997;3:219-224.
14. Nelson AB , Lau BH , Ide N , Rong Y. Pycnogenol inhibits macrophage oxidative burst, lipoprotein oxidation, and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1998;24:139-144.
15. Kobayashi MS , Han D , Packer L. Antioxidants and herbal extracts protect HT-4 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Free Radic Res. 2000;32:115-124.


16. Battino M , Ferreiro MS , Armeni T , et al. In vitro antioxidant activities of antioxidant-enriched toothpastes. Free Radic Res. 2005;39:343-350.
17. Ahn J , Grun IU , Mustapha A. Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Food Microbiol. 2006;24:7-14.
18. Huynh HT , Teel RW. Effects of pycnogenol on the microsomal metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK as a function of age. Cancer Lett. 1998;132:135-139.
19. Virgili F , Kim D , Packer L. Procyanidins extracted from pine bark protect alpha-tocopherol in ECV 304 endothelial cells challenged by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. FEBS Lett. 1998;431:315-318.
20. Virgili F , Kobuchi H , Packer L. Procyanidins extracted from Pinus maritima (Pycnogenol): scavengers of free radical species and modulators of nitrogen monoxide metabolism in activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;24:1120-1129.


21. Siler-Marsiglio KI , Shaw G , Heaton MB. Pycnogenol and vitamin E inhibit ethanol-induced apoptosis in rat cerebellar granule cells. J Neurobiol. 2004;59:261-271.
22. Siler-Marsiglio KI , Paiva M , Madorsky I , Serrano Y , Neeley A , Heaton MB. Protective mechanisms of pycnogenol in ethanol-insulted cerebellar granule cells. J Neurobiol. 2004;61:267-276.
23. Peng QL , Buz’Zard AR , Lau BH. Pycnogenol protects neurons from amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;104:55-65.
24. Horakova L , Licht A , Sandig G , Jakstadt M , Durackova Z , Grune T. Standardized extracts of flavonoids increase the viability of PC12 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide: effects on oxidative injury. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:22-29.
25. Veurink G , Liu D , Taddei K , et al. Reduction of inclusion body pathology in ApoE-deficient mice fed a combination of antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34:1070-1077.


26. Maritim A , Dene BA , Sanders RA , Watkins ΙΙΙ JB. Effects of pycnogenol treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2003;17:193-199.
27. Devaraj S , Vega-Lopez S , Kaul N , Schonlau F , Rohdewald P , Jialal I. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids. 2002;37:931-934.
28. Silliman K , Parry J , Kirk LL , Prior RL. Pycnogenol does not impact the antioxidant or vitamin C status of healthy young adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:67-72.
29. Sharma SC , Sharma S , Gulati OP. Pycnogenol inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytother Res. 2003;17:66-69.
30. Cho KJ , Yun CH , Yoon DY , et al. Effect of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000;168:64-71.


31. Cho KJ , Yun CH , Packer L , Chung AS. Inhibition mechanisms of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;928:141-156.
32. Blazso G , Gabor M , Rohdewald P. Antiinflammatory activities of procyanidin-containing extracts from Pinus pinaster Ait. after oral and cutaneous application. Pharmazie. 1997;52:380-382.
33. Mochizuki M , Hasegawa N. Therapeutic efficacy of pycnogenol in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases. Phytother Res. 2004;18:1027-1028.
34. Saliou C , Rimbach G , Moini H , et al. Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor- kappa-B-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by a French maritime pine bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;30:154-173.
35. Grimm T , Chovanova Z , Muchova J , et al. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). J Inflamm. 2006;3:1-6.


36. Gulati OP. Pycnogenol in venous disorders: A review. Eur Bull Drug Res. 1999;7:8-13.
37. Arcangeli P. Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:236-244.
38. Petrassi C , Mastromarino A , Spartera C. Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytomed. 2000;7:383-388.
39. Hosseini S , Lee J , Sepulveda RT , Rhodewald P , Watson RR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr Res. 2001;21:1251-1260.
40. Koch R. Comparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res. 2002;16:S1-S5.


41. Cesarone MR , Belcaro G , Rohdewald P , et al. Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: a prospective, controlled study. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2006;12:205-212.
42. Belcaro G , Cesarone MR , Errichi BM , et al. Venous ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of pycnogenol. Angiology. 2005;56:699-705.
43. Spadea L , Balestrazzi E. Treatment of vascular diabetes retinopathies with pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2001;15:219-223.
44. Schonlau F , Rohdewald P. Pycnogenol for diabetes retinopathy. A review. Int Ophthalmol. 2001;24:161-171.
45. Wang S , Tan D , Zhao Y , Guankai G , Gao X , Hu L. The effect of pycnogenol on the microcirculation, plaatelet function and ischemic mycardium in patients with coronary artery diseases. Eur Bull Drug Res. 1999;7:19-25.


46. Pütter M , Grotemeyer KH , Wurthwein G , et al. Inhibition of smoking-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin and pycnogenol. Thromb Res. 1999;95:155-161.
47. Araghi-Niknam M , Hosseini S , Larson D , Rohdewald P , Watson RR. Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation. Integr Med. 2000;2:73-77.
48. Rohdewald P , inventor. Method of controlling the reactivity of human blood platelets by oral administration of the extract of the maritime pine (pycnogenol). US patent 5,720,956. February 21, 1998.
49. Huynh HT , Teel RW. Selective induction of apoptosis in human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) by pycnogenol. Anticancer Res. 2000;20:2417-2430.
50. Huang WW , Yang JS , Lin CF , Ho WJ , Lee MR. Pycnogenol induces differentiation and apoptosis in human promyeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. Leuk Res. 2005;29:685-692.


51. Sharma SC , Sharma S , Gulati OP. Pycnogenol prevents haemolytic injury in G6PD deficient human erythrocytes. Phytother Res. 2003;17:671-674.
52. Hasegawa N. Inhibition of lipogenesis by pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2000;14:472-473.
53. Hasegawa N. Stimulation of lipolysis by pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 1999;13:619-620.
54. Mochizuki M , Hasegawa N. Pycnogenol stimulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells via stimulation of beta-receptor mediated activity. Phytother Res. 2004;18:1029-1030.
55. Buz’Zard AR , Peng Q , Lau BH. Kyolic and Pycnogenol increase human growth hormone secretion in genetically-engineered keratinocytes. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2002;12:34-40.


56. Torras MA , Faura CA , Schonlau F , Rohdewald P. Antimicrobial activity of pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2005;19:647-648.
57. Blaszó G , Gaspar R , Gabor M , Ruve HJ , Rohdewald P. ACE inhibition and hypotensive effect of a procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. Pharm Pharmacol Lett. 1996;6:8-11.
58. Berryman AM , Maritim AC , Sanders RA , Watkins JB, 3rd. Influence of treatment of diabetes rats with combinations of pycnogenol, beta-carotene, and alpha-lipoic acid on parameters of oxidative stress. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2004;18:345-352.
59. Liu F , Zhang Y , Lau BH. Pycnogenol improves learning impairment and memory deficit in senescent-accelerated mice. J Anti Aging Med. 1999;2:349-355.
60. Liu FJ , Zhang YX , Lau BH. Pycnogenol enhances immune and haemopoietic functions in senescence-accelerated mice. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1998;54:1168-1172.


61. Blazso G , Gabor M , Schonlau F , Rohdewald P. Pycnogenol accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation. Phytother Res. 2004;18:579-581.
62. Cheshier JE , Ardestani-Kaboudanian S , Liang B , et al. Immunomodulation by pycnogenol in retrovirus-infected or ethanol-fed mice. Life Sci. 1996;58:87-96.
63. Feng WH , Wei HL , Liu GT. Effect of pycnogenol on the toxicity of heart, bone marrow and immune organs as induced by antitumor drugs. Phytomed. 2002;9:414-418.
64. de Moraes Ramos FM , Schonlau F , Novaes PD , Manzi FR , Boscolo FN , de Almeida SM. Pycnogenol protects against Ionizing radiation as shown in the intestinal mucosa of rats exposed to X-rays. Phytother Res. 2006;20:676-679.
65. Sime S , Reeve VE. Protection from inflammation, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation in mice by topical pycnogenol. Photochem Photobiol. 2004;79:193-198.


66. Liu X , Wei J , Tan F , Zhou S , Wurthwein G , Rohdewald R. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci. 2004;74:855-862.
67. Liu X , Wei J , Tan F , Zhou S , Wurthwein G , Rohdewald P. Anti diabetes effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci. 2004;75:2505-2513.
68. Ni Z , Mu Y , Gulati O. Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2002;16:567-571.
69. Trebaticka J , Kopasova S , Hradecna Z , et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15:329-335.
70. Scurr JH , Gulati OP. Zinopin —the rationale for its use as a food supplement in Traveller’s thrombosis and motion sickness. Phytother Res. 2004;18:687-695.


71. Cesarone MR , Belcaro G , Rohdewald P , et al. Prevention of edema in long flights with pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hemos. 2005;11:289-294.
72. Stefanescu M , Matache C , Onu A , et al. Pycnogenol efficacy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Phytother Res. 2001;15:698-704.
73. Kohama T , Inoue M. Pycnogenol alleviates pain associated with pregnancy. Phytother Res. 2006;20:232-234.
74. Lau BH , Riesen SK , Truong KP , Lau ES , Rohdewald P , Barreta RA. Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma. J Asthma. 2004;41:825-832.
75. Kimbrough C , Chun M , dela Roca G , Lau BH. Pycnogenol chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation. Phytomed. 2002;9:410-416.
76. Roseff SJ , Gulati R. Improvement of sperm quality by Pycnogenol. Eur Bull Drug Res. 1999;7:33-36.
77. Durackova Z , Trebaticky B , Novotny V , Zitnanova I , Breza J. Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by pycnogenol, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction-a pilot study. Nutr Res. 2003;23:1189-1198.


Prof. dr. J.M. Keppel Hesselink, Drs. D.J. Kopsky, arts
‘Bronnen voor Pycnogenol bij diabetes en retinopathie’

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