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Pycnogenol bij diabetes

bast_naaldboom.jpegPycnogenol is een plantaardig product van de bast van een denneboom aan de Middelandse zee. Dat middel is getest bij diabetische retinopathie, een netvliesafwijking die net zoals diabetische neuropathie, een complicatie van de suikerziekte is. De resultaten waren hoopgevend en zijn in November 2009 gepubliceerd in een medisch tijdschrift. Het zijn de meest recente bevindingen, die steeds weer sinds ongeveer een halve eeuw gevonden worden met dit plantaardige preparaat.

Pycnogenol remt diabetische retinopathie 

De onderzoekend arts Robert Steigerwal had als commentaar:

"Previous research has shown that Pycnogenol may reduce the progressing advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy. While previous studies focused on the latent stages of diabetic retinopathy, the aim of this new study was to show the protective effects of Pycnogenol in the early stages of this growing diabetic complication." 

46 patienten met oogafwijkingen door diabetes werden in een placebo gecontroleerde studie 3 maanden lang behandeld met pycnogerol.[1]

De resultaten waren duidelijk meetbaar:

Following treatment with Pycnogenol (24 patients) for 3 months, retinal edema score (dilated ophthalmology) and retinal thickness (high resolution ultrasound) showed statistically significant improvement as compared to the placebo group (22 patients), which showed negligible changes to baseline. Laser Doppler flow velocity measurements at the central retinal artery showed a statistically significant increase from 34 to 44 cm/s in the Pycnogenol group as compared to marginal effects in the control group. 

Dus zowel het vocht achter het netvlies, de dikte van het netvlies (hoe dikker hoe problematischer door het oedeem), als de bloedstroom in de oogslagader veranderde na behandeling op een positieve wijze. Het oedeem en de dikte werden minder, de stroonsnelheid van het bloed nam toe.

Pycnogenol heeft goede effecten op suiker

Ook de suikercontrole lijkt door pycnogerol positief beinvloed te worden. [2] In een andere studie bleek 100 mg pycnogenol ingenomen gedurende 3 maanden ook de bloedsuiker te verbeteren. [3] Ook de micro-angiopathische stoornissen werden meetbaar beter in een studie waar 3 maal daags 50 mg ingenomen werd. [4]

Pycnogenol heeft ook in diermodellen een duidelijk meetbaar positief biologisch effect. [5] Bij diabetische ratten verbetert het ook de zenuwgeleidingssnelheid. [6]

Positieve effecten al lang bekend, en er zijn sinds de jaren 60 veel studies gedaan naar de effecten van pycnogenol.

In een overzichtsartikel jiut 2002 werden al een hele serie studies besproken met in het totaal bijna 200 patienten. De conclusie was toen (al);

Pycnogenol has been tested for treatment and prevention of retinopathy in five clinical trials with a total number of 1289 patients since the late 1960’s. All but one of these studies have been reported in French and German and, today, are of limited accessibility, giving the impetus for reviewing them in detail in this article. There were two open case studies and two double blind studies (one controlled against calcium dobesilate and another against placebo) and, finally, one multi-center field study with 1169 diabetics. All of these studies unequivocally showed that Pycnogenol retains progression of retinopathy and partly recovers visual acuity. [7]

pycnogenol_moleculen.gif

In Pycnogenol zitten een hele serie boeiende moleculen. De biologische beschikbaarheid ervan is voor een groot deel goed. Veel verschillende stoffen zijn uren lang in het bloedplasma meetbaar aanwezig. [8]

Ook pijnverminderende effecten zijn inmiddels gevonden in verschillende studies bij mensen.  [9] [10] [11]

Interacties

Er zijn geen formele interacties bekend, maar in het algemeen wordt wel aangegeven dat de bloedsuiker kan dalen, het cholecterol kan dalen en de bloedstolling zou beinvloed kunnen worden. Dus oppassen bij het gelijktijdig gebruik van antidiabetica, antihypertensiva en bloedverdunners. 

December 2009: prof.dr. Jan M. Keppel Hesselink, revisie 2012, januari, JMKH

Additionele bronnen:

 

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Referentie

[1] Steigerwalt R, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Di Renzo A, Grossi MG, Ricci A, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Schönlau F. | Pycnogenol improves microcirculation, retinal edema, and visual acuity in early diabetic retinopathy. | J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. | 2009 Dec;25(6):537-40.

[2] Zibadi S, Rohdewald PJ, Park D, Watson RR. | Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation. | Nutr Res. | 2008 May;28(5):315-20.

[3] Liu X, Wei J, Tan F, Zhou S, Würthwein G, Rohdewald P. | Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. | Life Sci. | 2004 Oct 8;75(21):2505-13.

[4] Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Vinciguerra G, Ricci A, Gizzi G, Ippolito E, Fano F, Dugall M, Cipollone G, Acerbi G, Cacchio M, Del Boccio G, Di Renzo A, Stuard S, Corsi M. | Improvement of diabetic microangiopathy with pycnogenol: A prospective, controlled study. | Angiology. | 2006 Aug-Sep;57(4):431-6.

[5] Klimas J, Kmecova J, Jankyova S, Yaghi D, Priesolova E, Kyselova Z, Musil P, Ochodnicky P, Krenek P, Kyselovic J, Matyas S. | Pycnogenol improves left ventricular function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. | Phytother Res. | 2010 Jul;24(7):969-74.

[6] Jankyova S, Kucera P, Goldenberg Z, Yaghi D, Navarova J, Kyselova Z, Stolc S, Klimas J, Racanska E, Matyas S. | Pycnogenol efficiency on glycaemia, motor nerve conduction velocity and markers of oxidative stress in mild type diabetes in rats. | Phytother Res. | 2009 Aug;23(8):1169-74.

[7] Schönlau F, Rohdewald P. | Pycnogenol for diabetic retinopathy. A review. | Int Ophthalmol. | 2001;24(3):161-71.

[8] Grimm T, Skrabala R, Chovanová Z, Muchová J, Sumegová K, Liptáková A, Duracková Z, Högger P. | Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers. | BMC Clin Pharmacol. | 2006 Aug 3;6:4.

[9] Errichi S, Bottari A, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Hosoi M, Cornelli U, Dugall M, Ledda A, Feragalli B. | Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition. | Panminerva Med. | 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):65-70.

[10] Cisár P, Jány R, Waczulíková I, Sumegová K, Muchová J, Vojtassák J, Duraćková Z, Lisý M, Rohdewald P. | Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. | Phytother Res. | 2008 Aug;22(8):1087-92.

[11] Yang HM, Liao MF, Zhu SY, Liao MN, Rohdewald P. | A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol on the climacteric syndrome in peri-menopausal women. | Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. | 2007;86(8):978-85.